Please Note: The extracts below (from various sources) are not necessarily endorsed by the S.F.T.A.H. but just to give an idea of what is available. Before embarking on any therapy, treatment, approach Etc. consult your clinician.
Treatment & Approaches. (see also autism fact file,)

See also Secretin

Section Index:

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Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed 12 years ago as a unique augmentative/ alternative training package that allows children and adults with autism and other communication deficits to initiate communication. First used at the Delaware Autistic Program, PECS has received worldwide recognition for focusing on the initiation component of communication. PECS does not require complex or expensive materials. It was created with educators, residential care providers and families in mind, and so it is readily used in a variety of settings.
PECS begins with teaching a student to exchange a picture of a desired item with a teacher, who immediately honors the request. Verbal prompts are not used, thus building immediate initiation and avoiding prompt dependency. The system goes on to teach discrimination of symbols and then puts them all together in simple “sentences.” Children are also taught to comment and answer direct questions. Many preschoolers using PECS also begin developing speech. The system has been successful with adolescents and adults who have a wide array of communicative, cognitive and physical difficulties. The foundation for the system is the PECS Training Manual, written by Lori Frost, MS, CCC/SLP and Dr. Andrew Bondy. The manual provides all of the necessary information to implement PECS effectively. It guides readers through the six phases of training and provides examples, helpful hints, and templates for data and progress reporting. This training manual is recognized by professionals in the fields of communication and behavior analysis as one of the most innovative systems recently developed.
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) via: Pyramid Educational Consultants, Inc.

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Anti-Yeast Therapy

The possible link between Candida albicans and autism, as well as other learning disabilities, is a topic of debate in the medical community.

Candida is a yeast-like fungus that is normally present in the body. Certain circumstances, however, may lead to an overgrowth. Common symptoms of such an overgrowth are vaginal yeast infections and thrush (white patches sometimes present in the mouth of an infant). More severe symptoms may include long-term immune system disturbances, depression, schizophrenia, and possibly autism.

Complaints Associated with the Candida Complex.

Intestinal problems, (constipation, diarrhoea, flatulence), Distended Stomach, Excessive genital touching in infants and young children, Cravings for carbohydrates, fruits and sweets. After ingestion of carbohydrates, hyperactivity for 15-20 minutes followed by hypoactivity. Unpleasant odour of hair and feet, acetone smell from mouth, Skin rashes, Fatigue, lethargy, depression, anxiety, Insomnia, Behaviour problems, May act “drunk”, Hyperactivity [From Rimland, ICBR]

Candida overgrowth is often attributed to long-term antibiotic treatments…… It has been reported that some children whose autistic tendencies surfaced at 18- 24 months had been continuously treated with antibiotics to control chronic ear infections.Etc….


American Academy of Environmental Medicine, PO Box 16106, Denver CO 80216

Autism Research Institute, 4182 Adams Avenue, San Diego, CA 92116 +(619) 281-7165 Can provide a “Candida Information and Questionnaire Packet” for $1.00. Bernard Rimland.

Great Smokies Diagnostic Laboratory, Martin Lee & Stephen Barrie, Associates, 18a Regent Park Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28806 +(704) 253-0621 Can provide kit for stool analysis used for determining yeast overgrowth.


Connolly, Pat. The Candida Albicans Yeast-Free Cookbook, New Canaan, CN: Keats, Publishing, 1985

Crook, William G. The Yeast Connection, PO Box 3494, 681 Skyline Drive, Jackson, TN 38301: Professional Books, 1987

Lorenzani, Shirley. Candida: A twentieth-Century Disease, New Canaan, CN: Keats Publishing, 1986

Rimland, Bernard. “Letter from the Autism Research Institute, Candida Packet” San Diego: Autism Research Institute.

Trowbridge, John P., and Walker Morton, The Yeast Syndrome, New York: Bantam Books, 1986

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Facilitated Communication

Facilitated communication (FC) is a method of providing physical support to an individual, which in turn enables him or her to express ideas via an alphabet board, picture board, typewriter, or computer. Hand-over- hand or -arm support is given by the facilitator.

Facilitated communication has challenged many assumptions about the abilities of people with communication disorders such as autism. Often expressed by individuals FC are statements that they are not retarded but are intelligent. Yet FC, when used with individuals with autism, is still a highly controversial method and may not withstand the rigours of scientific investigation.

Rosemary Crossley, from Australia, brought attention to facilitated communication in her 1980 book, Annie’s Coming Out.

Douglas Biklen, a professor at Syracuse University, in his article, “Communication Unbound: Autism and praxis,” generated much of the initial interest in FC, and he has subsequently written a book, Communications Unbound:……..

There is still much debate about the validity of FC and it has caused controversy among parents and professionals alike.

There are great concerns about the many allegations of physical and/or sexual abuse that have come to light via facilitated communication.


see web site:QIM TUNES.

Dignity through Education and Language Centre (DEAL). 538 Dundenong Road. Caulfield, 3162.
Australia. Language Centre (DEAL).

Facilitated Communication Institute, Syracuse University, 364 Huntington Hall, Syracuse NY 13244-2340.
Syracuse University

Sound and Light, London

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Mega-Vitamin Therapy

Dr Bernard Rimland, director of the Autism Research Institute, and other scientists investigated claims from parents on improvements seen in their children after taking certain vitamins.

A vitamin and mineral therapy was developed, which is now considered an effective treatment for some individuals with autism.

Researchers concluded that large doses of Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), with magnesium and other vitamins and minerals, are an effective treatment for 45-50% of the individuals with autism.

It is important to take Vitamin B6 in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in order to help metabolize vitamin B6 and magnesium.

Visit Kirkmans Web Site. Kirkman Sales. This web site is not on line
server down, will be up and running soon. Try ARI

Kirkman Laboratory produces a relatively inexpensive mega-B6/magnesium supplement which provides many other essential vitamins and nutrients, making it superior to B6 and magnesium alone.

Studies have shown that vitamin B6 helps to control hyperactivity, and improve overall behaviour. Although improvements vary considerably among individuals, other possible improvements are: speech improvements, improved sleeping patterns, lessened irritability, increased attention span, decrease in self-stimulation, overall improvement in general health [See icbr.B. Rimland]

In some cases behavioural improvements can be seen in a matter of days. However, the vitamins often take 60-90 days to show any effects. Dosage is an important consideration. The Autism Research Institute provides a form letter on B6/magnesium therapy that includes a detailed description of the treatment, a dosage chart, a table of scientific research data, and an extensive bibliography. Reading this report before beginning the megavitamin therapy is recommended.

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Dimethylglycine (DMG) Supplements

Dimethylglycine (DMG), is a food substance. Its chemical make-up resembles that of water soluble vitamins, specifically vitamin B15. DMG does not require a prescription, and it can be purchased at many health food stores. There are no apparent side effects

Reports from parents giving their child DMG indicate improvements in the areas of speech, eye contact, social behaviour, and attention span. [See Rimland, “Dimethylglycine (DMG) in the Treatment of Autism.”]


Autism Research Institute, 4182 Adams Avenue, San Diego, CA 92116.TEL:+(619) 281-7165 Bernard Rimland, Director.

Kirkman Sales Co. PO Box 1009, Wilsonville, OR 97070. TEL: +(503) 694-1600 Provides vitamin/mineral supplement.


Leklem, J., and R. Reynolds (eds) Vitamin B6 Responsive Disorders in Humans, New York: Alan Liss, 1988.

Rimland, B. Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behaviour, New York, Appleton Century Crofts, 1964.

Schopler, E., and G Mesibov (eds). Neurobiological Issues In Autism, New York: Plenum Press, 1987.

Rimland, Bernard, “Dimethylglycine (DMG) in the Treatment of Autism.” Autism Research Institute Publication 110, 1991. (at cost¢)

Rimland, Bernard, “Form Letter Regarding High Dosage Vitamin B6 and Magnesium Therapy for Autism and Related Disorders.” Autism Research Institute Publication 39, revised 1991, (at cost¢)

Rimland, B., E Callaway, and P. Dreyfus. “The Effects of high doses of Vitamin B6 on autistic children. A double-blind cross-over study.” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 135, 1978, pp. 472-75.

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Option Institute (The Son-Rise Program.SM)

Barry Neil and Samahria Kaufman, founders of The Option Institute and Fellowship, pioneered their own method of working with children with autism.

In the book Son-Rise, Barry Kaufman describes his son as exhibiting many of the characteristics of autism. At eighteen months, Raun was formally diagnosed as autistic and functionally retarded by psychiatric and developmental professionals. After searching nationwide without finding a program that would offer hope for Raun’s recovery they designed an intensive stimulation program based on an attitude of unconditional love and acceptance. After three years of this home-based, parent-directed program, Raum completely emerged from his condition with no signs of autism.

As a result of great demand from parents wishing to learn more about the method, the Kaufmans founded The Option Institute and Fellowship. The Institute offers training for families wishing to create home-based Son- Rise Programs for their special children

At present, no formal studies or evaluations have validated the effectiveness of the Son-Rise Program as a treatment for children with autism. The program requires immense commitment and dedication on the part of the child’s family.


The Option Institute and Fellowship, 2080 South Undermountain Road. Sheffield, MA 01257. +(413) 229-2100/FAX:+(413) 229-8931


Kaufman, Barry Neil. Son-Rise. New York: Warner Books, Harper and Row, 1976. (Revised version is scheduled for publication in early 1994)

Kaufman, Barry Neil. A Miracle To Believe In, New York: Ballantine Books, Random House, 1981.

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Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children.

See Teacch in main menu.

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Higashi(Daily Life Therapy)

“Daily Life Therapy,” pioneered by Dr Kiyo Kitahara at the Higashi School in Japan, provides an education based on integration with nonhandicapped children and emphasizes rigorous physical education and the arts.
Populations Served Autistic, Autistic-like, Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

A method developed in Japan and imported into the USA. It includes elements normally found in the education of autistic children, but places unusual attention to physical exercise. It has been said to have achieved “unprecedented results”. The first school (Higashi School) to use this method was opened in Tokyo in 1964, and a school following the same principles was opened in Boston in 1987 (USA Higashi). Populations Not Served Multi-Handicapped (physically disabled), Severe/Profound Mental Retardation, Emotionally Disturbed, Character Disorder, Uncontrolled Seizure Disorder.

School Profile
Enrollment: M/F, Age Range Served: 3 – 22, Age at Admission: 3 – 12 (up to 16 considered), Program: Day/Res, Staff/Pupil Ratio: 1:6 Day 5:16 Res, # of Months Open: 12, # of Days Open: 217 Day 304 Res, Current Enrollment: 120

Admissions Procedure

The Boston Higashi School admits students throughout the year; however, candidates are encouraged to apply prior to the beginning of each semester (Sept/Jan). The Day/Residential Program is open to students 3-22. Primary age of admission is 3-12 with students up to 16 considered. Primary reason for referral is autism. Candidates may be referred by SEAs, LEAs, intermediate school districts, parents or other agencies.


The Boston Higashi School is approved as a Day and Residential Program by MA DOE and MA OFC. Funding for placements is provided by MA DSS and MA DMR. States and countries represented from placements include: AL, CA, CT, FL, IL, IN, MA, MD, MI, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, VA, WI, Australia, Colombia, Guam, Ireland, Japan, Liberia, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, United Kingdom, Ukraine, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia.

ASA, CEC, COSAC, GBAAPS, Natick Rotary Club, Japan Society of Boston, Japanese Association of Greater Boston, Lesley College, MAAPS, MAPSE, Musashino Higashi Gakuen School, Tokyo, Japan, NAPSEC, and South Shore Chamber of Commerce.

*Current Research Projects:
(1) Massachusetts General Hospital and Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center,
“Effects of Perinatal Stressors on Developmental Disabilities”
(2) New England Medical Center, “Collaborative Linkage Study of Autism”
(3) Tufts New England Medical Center, “Genetics, Neurobiology and Neuropsychology of Autism: Toward a Clearer Definition of the Autism Phenotype”.

Daily Life Therapy is an educational methodology based upon a development model of group dynamics, physical education, art, music, academics and vocational training. Whole language and a socio-communicative approach is utilized for language acquisition and the development of communication skills. The computer center with state-of-the-art software enhances learning, language, and literacy. Academics designed for individual capabilities are emphasized. Physical education and vigorous exercise are used to reduce anxiety, gain stamina and establish rhythm and routines. Exercises are founded upon principles of sensory integration and vestibular stimulation that lead to the development of coordination and cooperative group interaction.
Academics including language arts, math, social studies, and science are compatible with typical school curricula to prepare each student for inclusion opportunities. Art and music provide opportunities to gain mastery and appreciation for esthetics.

The vocational curriculum is designed to ensure that employment opportunities naturally unfold to include a rich diversity of work experiences. Upon entering high school, all students participate in community work and ultimately employment. Areas of employment opportunities may include clerical, custodial, stocking, food service and landscaping. All vocational students are paid employees.

The residential program is a related educational service designed to teach daily living and social skills and to support the Day Program in order for students to maintain and derive educational progress. The residential program is an educational component to optimize life-long inclusion in the community and not a place to provide long-term living arrangements. Family support services offer parent training and involvement through regularly scheduled Parent Study Meetings, One Day Sessions (during winter and springvacations) and respite assistance. Clinical assessment and therapeutic services are also provided.

Location and Facilities
Our day program is located in Randolph, MA. From Route 128 South to Route 93 North, Exit 5A (Route 28 South). Our residential program, situated on 43 acres of beautifully wooded land, is located in South Natick, MA at 109 Woodland Road, just off Union Street.

History and Philosophy
Boston Higashi School, Inc. is an international program serving individuals, ages 3-22, with autism. Our philosophy is based upon the acclaimed tenets of Daily Life Therapy developed by the late Dr. Kiyo Kitahara of Tokyo, Japan. Our holistic approach captures the essence of humanity and reflects sensibilities and sensitivities, the intellect and the esthetics of humankind, attaining harmony in all aspects of life. Dr. Kiyo Kitahara’s method provides children with systematic education through group dynamics, modeling, and physical activity. The goal of this educational approach is for the children to develop physically, emotionally, intellectually and to achieve social independence and dignity.


under construction
Higashi School Japan.
Higashi School, Boston.


Roland, C.C., G.G. McGee, T.R. Risley, and B. Rimland. “Description of the Tokyo Higashi Program for autistic children.” Autism Research Institute 4182 Adams Avenue, San Diego, CA 92116 +(619) 281-7165 Publication #77, 1987.

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Lovaas Therapy

Lovaas Therapy for Maine Preschoolers with Autism / PDD Lovaas therapy” refers to the treatment model developed by Ivar Lovaas, Ph.D., at the UCLA Clinic for the Behavioral Treatment of Children. Dr. Lovaas has worked with autistic children for over 30 years. He reported on the results of his work with a group of autistic preschoolers (starting under age 4) in a major study in 1987 and a follow-up study in 1993…………

Holding Therapy.

In the late 1970s holding therapy gained wide-spread attention when Dr Martha Welch, a child psychiatirst from New York, began using it as a means of working with children with autism . Her work is written in the book, Holding Time. Holding therapy has many advocates, who claim remarkable results, as well as many detractors who disagree with its intrusive nature.

The place of holding in changing autistic behaviour is that it is one technique amongst many, and it is to be combined with baby play, treatment of specific learning difficulties, family therapy and psychotherapy, thorough medical screening and exclusion of food intolerances, appropriate educational measures, family support, etc. It occupies a central place in the total package of measures that seem to be needed to help children with autistic behaviour. It should not be used by itself. It needs to be applied rationally with an understanding of its processes and effects. Proponents say “Used like this it is one of the most powerful, economical and effective actions that can be taken to help reduce autistic behaviour.”

During holding therapy the parent attempts to make contact with the child in various ways. This may mean simply comforting a distressed child. But often the parent may hold the child for periods of time, even if the child is fighting against the embrace. The child sits or lies face to face with the parent, who tries to establish eye contact, as well as to share feelings verbally throughout the holding session. The parent remains calm and in control and offers comfort when the child stops resisting. Holding can be as short as a few minutes, but it can also last for hours at a time.


Dr Martha Welch. The Mothering Centre. 235 Cognewaugh Road. Cos Cob,CN 06807 Tel:(206) 661-1413

The Timbergen Trust. The Mothering Centre. 8 Somerset Road. Teddington. Middx. TW11 8RS. United Kingdom


Richer, John. “Holding-a brief guide for parents.” 1992

Richer, John. “Changing Autistic Behaviour-The place of holding.” 1991

Grandin, Temple. “An Autistic person’s view of holding therapy.” The Advocate, vol. 22. no. 4,

Keogh, Tom. “Children without a conscience.” New Age Journal, Jan/Feb. 1993,

Maurice, Catherine, Let Me Hear Your Voice, New York: Alfred Knopf, 1993.

Powers, Michael D. and Carolyn A. Thorwash. “The effect of negative reinforcement on tolerance of physical contact in a pre-school autistic child.” Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 14,no. 4, 1985

Rimland, Bernard. “Holding therapy: Maternal bonding or cerebellar stimulation,” Autism Research Review International, vol.1, no.3, 1987,

Timbergen, Niko. and Elizabeth A. Timbergen. Autistic Children: New Hope for a Cure. London: Allen and Unwin, 1983.

Welch, Martha. Holding Time, London: Century Hutchinson, 1989.

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Speech & Language Therapy.(Communication Therapy)

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AIT (Auditory Intergration Training)

Auditory Integration Training (AIT) attempts to reduce problems with auditory processing which are experienced by some people with autism. AIT is done with a device that filters some sound frequencies from recorded music which the trainee listens to via headphones………..

Dr. Guy Berard, developer of Berard method of AIT, and Bill Clark, developer of the BGC method of AIT, state that filtering peaks is optional for the developmentally disabled population. In addition, Drs. Bernard Rimland and Stephen Edelson of the Autism Research Institute in San Diego have conducted three empirical studies and have found that filtering peaks in one’s hearing is not related to one’s level of improvement using various post-assessment measures. The music is, in all cases, modulated throughout the 10 hours of listening, whether or not peaks are filtered.

AIT involves several components including some audiological work, behavior analysis and management, educational issues, and after-care counseling for the client and family. The most satisfactory results can be obtained when a multi-disciplinary team approach is used……..


  • The Georgiana Organisation , Inc, P.O. Box 2607, Westport CT 06880 Telephone: +(203) 454-1221
  • Center for the Study of Autism, 2207b Portland Road, Newberg OR 97132 Telephone: +(503) 538-9045
  • Lynn Adams, 1203 Fawn Street, Tullahome TN 37388 Telephone: (615) 454-9578

The Autism Research Institute maintains a list of AIT practitioners world-wide. To receive a copy send a stamped,. self-addressed envelope marked ’ AIT practitioner list’ to: Autism Research Institute, 4182 Adams, San Diego CA 92116

For more detailed, in-depth material, contact SAIT web site:


Annabel Stehli wrote a book, The Sound of a Miracle , about her daugher’s experience with auditory training.

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AIA (Allergy-induced Autism)

Allergy-induced Autism Support and Research Network (UK)

Welcome to the AiA World Wide Web Home Page. The aim of this network is to provide support for families and initiate medical research into Autism.

WHAT IS ‘ALLERGY-INDUCED’ AUTISM ? Autism…….. The symptoms usually become apparent during the first three years of life. We consider the children in our Group to have ‘allergy-induced’ autism, as all of them have autism that appears to have been triggered by intolerance to many foods and/or chemicals, the main offenders being wheat, cow’s milk, corn, sugar and citrus fruits, although each child is different, and may be affected by different substances. When these particular children develop autism, their diet completely changes, and they become picky eaters, choosing the foods they wish to eat and consuming them to excess, this after having followed a normal diet from birth. The children also have many almost unnoticeable physical problems, namely excessive thirst, excessive sweating, especially at night, low blood sugar, diarrhoea, bloating, rhinitis, inability to control temperature, red face and/or ears, dark circles under the eyes, etc…….

AIA Web Home Page>>…. 12. AIA (Allergy Induced Autism)

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Electronic Auditory Stimulation effect

WEB HOME PAGE. 13.Electronic Auditory Stimulation effect

A short description of EASe:

Vision Audio Inc. 611 Anchor Drive, Joppa MD 21085 410-679-1605 has created the EASe (Electronic Auditory Stimulation effect) disc series as a way to make transient electronic auditory stimulation as used in AIT (Auditory Integration Training) affordable to every parent. EASe, a compact audio disc (CD), is used with ordinary stereo equipment in the home by parents. To order send a check for $82.00 ($79.00 for the disc and $3.00 for priority mail) to the above address.

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Delacato and new Delacato.

Brain stimulation activities for brain-injured children developed by Glenn Doman and Carl Delacatto. It involves cross-patterning, patterning and sensory exercises developed to enhance memory and processing.

*New Delacato.
Carl Delacto, Ed.D., is world renowned for his work (originally with Doman) between 1963 and 1973 on Brain Injured children, and subsequently with autistic and mobility impaired.
He was a pioneer in the field of autism and has clinics in Europe, Scandinavia and the USA. He is now aided by his son, David.
Delacato’s work on autism is based on his theory that:
autistic children are not psychotic* (*A “psychosis” infers mental illness) they are brain injured.
brain injury causes dysfunction in one or more of the channels of communication with the world: sight, sound, taste, touch and/or smell.
the dysfunction can manifest in one of three ways: too much stimulation entering the ‘channel’ for the brain to handle (hyper); too little stimulation leading to brain deprivation (hypo); or the creation of stimulus by the channel itself which garbles, or in some cases completely overcome, or extinguishes the messages from the outside world (white noise)

The delacato team over 2 to 3 hour session’s will evaluate a child and tailor a programme to suit his/her needs. Programmes working on the senses in order to normalise them are devised for parents to carry out at home. As well as education, communication and speech, they include massage for tactility, auditory and visual work, and tasks for smell and taste, mobility and development. All tasks are fitted into 2 to 5 minute slots so that the child does not become bored, and are repeated as necessary. The Programme is re-evaluated after a four months and altered as appropriate.


Neurological Organization is the physiologically optimum condition which exists uniquely and most completely in man and is the result of a total and uninterrupted ontogenetic neural development. This development recapitulates the phylogenetic neural development of man and begins during the first trimester of gestation and ends at about six and one – half years of age in normal humans.

This orderly development in humans progresses vertically through the spinal cord and all other areas of the central nervous system up to the level of the cortex, as it does with all other mammals. Man’s final and unique developmental progression takes place at the level of the cortex and it is lateral (from left to right or from right to left).

This progression is an interdependent continuum, hence… if a lower level is incomplete all succeeding higher levels are affected. The final lateral progression must become dominant and must supersede all others.

Pre-requisite, however to such dominance is the adequate development of all lower levels. In totally developed man the left or the right cortical hemisphere must become dominant, with lower prerequisite requirements met if his organization is to be complete.

Delacato International Consultants in Learning 306 Williams Road Fort Washington, PA 19034
USA PHONE: 001-215-540-9252 FAX: 001-215-540-9253 E-mail:

Delacato Konsultation Deutchland

C/O T. Hunze & S. Attallah Buschdorfer Str. 8, 53117 Bonn, Germany Phone:011-49-228-67-3919 FAX: 011-49-228-689-6944 E-mail:


Delacato e Delacato C/O Sergio Martone Via B. Rota 75, 80067 Sorrento (NA), Italy Phone & FAX: 011-39-081-807-1368 Phone: 011-39-081-807-3541 E-mail:
Delacato – Mahdollisuus Lapselle RY C/O Erja Hokkanen Kaanaatio 188, 01800 Klaukkala, Finland Phone & FAX: 011-358-9-8792-009 E-mail:
Pohjoisen Klinikka (Oulu) C/O Rauno Laitila Toivola-koti Leppiniementie 155 SF – 91500 Muhos Phone: 011-358-8-5341-800 /-801 FAX: 011-358-8-5341 826 E-mail:

Delacato Centre, UK C/O Robin & Julia Burn 26,Gwscwm Park Burry Port CARMARTHENSHIRE SA16 0DX Wales Phone & Fax: 44-(0)1-554-834 951 E-mail:

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Diet – Food

Gluten Free & Casein Free Diet
William G. Crook, M.D. author of Yeast Connection.
Dr. Sidney Baker.
Dr. Jeff Bradstreet home page
Paul Shattock of the U. of Sunderland
For those with an intolerance to gluten.
Food Allergy network
Recipe Collection
Gluten/Casein-Free Diet by Lisa Lewis
ANDI-Autism Network for Dietary Intervention
Gluten/Casein-Free Diet
Diet Miscellaneous Information
Food List
Gluten-Wheat free Diets
ADHD and Milk
No-Milk Links
Candida and Diet
Feingold Association
Autism Research Institute
Immunosciences Lab website – testing information.

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Snowdrop (What is neuro – cognitive therapy?)


Developmental problems seen in children are a consequence of brain injury, whether that injury has been caused by oxygen starvation, or malnutrition, an impoverished environment, drug use, etc. Brain injury impacts upon the child’s ability to perceive the world correctly. It does so by interfering with the brain’s ability to take in and process sensory stimulation from the environment through vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch. If a child does not perceive the world correctly, then he will be unable to respond to it appropriately. For instance, language development is not normal in the absence of the appropriate processing of sound; movement and hand function are impaired in the absence of the appropriate processing of tactile stimuli (touch). These are ‘sensory – motor loops,’ the motor part of each loop having its development impaired by the lack of development of the sensory part of the loop.

Neuro – cognitive therapy is based upon two principles, which guide everything we do.

(1). The brain is plastic. –

What do we mean by plastic? Well, we mean that the brain is capable of altering its own structure and functioning to meet the demands of any particular environment.
o What evidence can we produce to sustain this view? – There is ample evidence in the scientific literature that if a child develops in an impoverished, under-stimulating environment, the size of the brain is smaller and the richness of its connectivity is comparatively poor. This is reflected in relatively poor physical, social and intellectual development. A child, who is fortunate enough to develop in an enriched, stimulating environment, will possess a bigger brain, with richer connectivity. This is reflected in relatively superior physical, social and intellectual development.
o Now consider what brain injury in effect does to a child. It creates a de-facto impoverished environment because the child’s developmental processes must attempt to proceed through the constraining effects of the brain injury. In effect, the brain injury creates a barrier between the child and his environment, either by not permitting appropriate development of the sensory systems, or by distorting them, so that he cannot gain access to the stimulation he needs.

However, the fact of brain plasticity also means that recovery of function must be possible after brain injury. To have the best opportunity of recovery of function, the child who has sustained brain injury needs to be placed in a highly enriched, appropriately stimulating environment, which is adapted to cater for his developmental level.

So, the first principle of neuro-cognitive therapy is to design the appropriate ‘neurological environment’ for the child. (This could be a room in the house, – the child’s bedroom, or a spare room for example, which can be adapted to meet the child’s need for sensory stimulation.

(2). Learning can lead development.

As early as the early 1900s, this was being proven by a psychologist named Lev Vygotsky. He proposed that children’s learning is a social activity, which is achieved by interaction with more skilled members of society. Recent studies, which have looked into the ways in which children learn, confirm Vygotsky’s ideas. So what do we know about how children learn and develop?
o We know that prior to attending school, children learn in the informal, natural setting of the home and wider community.
o We know that children are taught, without being aware they are being taught and parents along with other family members and members of the wider community teach children, without being aware they are teaching.
o We know that this natural teaching is a social activity and that consequently what is being taught and learned is ‘social,’ – it is within the interaction between for instance, parent and child.
o We know that little by little, with supervision and guidance, what is being taught is ‘internalised’ by the child to become part of that child’s new developmental capability.
o We know that the more the child practices this new ability, whether it is physical, intellectual or social, the more effective his performance at it will be and the quicker he will be able to carry it out ‘automatically,’ without having to think about it.

This is the way in which children learn and it would be wrong to think that brain injured children are different to this in the way they learn: – THEY ARE NOT! Children are children, whether having suffered brain injury or not. This brings us to the second principle of neuro – cognitive therapy; – We have to make these teaching techniques more explicit and ensure that we pitch the developmental learning tasks at the appropriate developmental level and level of intensity. If we are successful in utilising these two principles, developmental gains can be possible in even the most severely brain injured child.

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Cell Therapy.

Cell Therapy involves the deep sub-cutaneous injection (usually in the large muscle of the rear-end) of fetal brain tissue. The procedure has been well known in certain European countries (eg: Germany, Russia, Israel) for many years, but for some reason has been treated with suspicion in North America and other English speaking countries, until recently. The world’s leading researcher in the field is Dr. Franz Schmidt, of Germany. Dr. Schmidt has been using cell therapy for many years in the treatment of “Downs Syndrome”. Unlike the potentially dangerous and highly controversial cell therapy being practiced in Russia (which involves using live human fetal tissue), Dr. Schmidt’s therapy involves the use of preserved tissue from sheep fetuses. >>>>>more>>>> see web site: Cell Therapy

The Myelin Project.


Note: Sphingolin is a myelin food supplement made from cow spine. This product can be purchased through L&H Vitamins at L & H VITAMINS. or at (800) 221-1152. The Web page for stories of people with MS that have used Sphingolin is

The Myelin Project.

The Myelin Project aims to accelerate research on myelin repair. Myelin, the white matter insulating the nerves, allows the conduction of impulses from one part of the body to another. It can be destroyed by hereditary metabolic disorders, such as the leukodystrophies, and in acquired diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Altogether, demyelinating diseases affect an estimated one million people in the industrial countries alone. Behind The Myelin Project is a multinational gathering of families struck by one demyelinating disease or another. Refusing to accept the conventional view that science cannot be hurried, they resolved to advance the moment when myelin can be restored.>>>>more>>>>


Medicinal Marijuana

Links that may be of interest ;



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by Fahri and Fern Zihni, Parents


Our son Adam is a boy aged five and has been displaying some autistic tendencies since the age of 18 months and he still has considerable learning difficulties. He appeared to develop normally up to the age of 18-24 months when he slowly started to withdraw into his “own world”, becoming increasingly distant to people around him. He also developed a fascination towards objects such as trains and viewing them from various perspectives. There was no eye contact. A few words which he had been using until 18-24 months of age slowly disappeared and he lost all speech by 36 months. Approaching three years, he was referred to an Assessment Unit where he was diagnosed as having a “severe receptive language disorder” and as having autistic tendencies. He has never been assessed as fully autistic because he is not obsessive in his routine and he has always been quite affectionate and “cuddly”. His formboard skills were average in spite of low performance in other areas.His imaginative play skills were low but not completely lacking. Following his assessment he attended Special School and he is currently attending a Moderate Learning Difficulties Unit of a mainstream school.


Adam enjoyed pushing trains back and forth for long periods of time, and watching television in general and repeated showings of cartoons and other programmes in particular. We were not able to “get through” to Adam at all and it occurred to us that we might be able to use the medium of television and video to communicate ideas to him. Initially, everyday “objects” such as toys, pets and parents’ faces and corresponding words were put on, in the hope of establishing the link between the two. This worked remarkably well and Adam learnt 250 words in the first six months about 220 directly from the video. It seemed that the more he watched the video, the more interested he became in further viewing. Adam learnt (the concept of) his (and others’) name through video and to how to respond appropriately to “What’s your / his / her name?” Following the success of nouns, other concepts followed, based on the priority needs of Adam prevailing at the time. With some difficulty, “What is it?”, “What colour is it?” and corresponding responses were taught. “Where is it?, “Whose is it?”, “Which one is … ?” followed with increasing ease. There is little doubt about the impact of this technique on Adam. For instance,when he was learning colours, brown was left out of the video by mistake. He did not know this colour for a long time and when asked, he “approximated” it to purple! The technique was not only used for the teaching of verbal language. Facial expressions to describe “happy”, “upset”, etc were shown and he soon understood the idea. We also taught him some “life-skills” through this medium. For instance, we filmed his older sister getting up, getting out of bed and going to the toilet to teach him how to stay dry at night. This “worked” straight away. Adam was not able to draw any images at all. If pushed, he just scribbled unintelligibly. To improve this skill, we made simple drawings of trains on video. After viewing the process a few times, he moved from never having drawn anything, to producing a very recognisable representation of the picture. This,again, represented an extraordinary leap in comprehension and provided a starting point for further drawing. Adam is now learning to write. He has learnt most of the letters of the alphabet and he can write his name and a few other words, again through the use of video. He can now count and write up to ten, thanks to the same technique. Adam is five-and-a-half now and he is using the affirmative “yes” which was quite delayed. He still has difficulties with all pronouns.


We can only guess at what the reasons for the success of this exercise might be.The following are some possibilities:

* autistic children do not feel comfortable with human interaction; this technique negates the need for such

* the luminous television screen provides a fascinating medium to the highly visual autistic mind

* the “predictability” of what’s coming up next provides a source of interest

* it is possible to simplify a video scene by filtering out extraneous objects, sounds, movements which might “clutter-up” and confuse the meaning of what is being conveyed

4. The “AZ” METHOD

We called the method that we use after Adam’s initials. The “AZ” Method is:

(a) Using the visual strengths of video in a clear and direct manner, as a means to convey meaning and teach language. This enables the learner to “filter out” extraneous visual or audial interference which may distract their attention or mislead them.

(b) Repeating different examples occurring within each “class” of things to learn. This helps the learner generalise different concepts. For example, repetition of “What’s this?” gets across the meaning of the question and the type of answer that is expected to be given to it. If one responds to the question by using different varieties of the same object (“ball” showing green ball, followed by “ball” again but different colour or size and so on, then the learner can begin to develop a skill for generalisation and classification. The same principle applies when developing more sophisticated concepts.

(c) Using the perspective of the camera in such a way that the object and subject can be distinguished This helps develop an appreciation of subjectivity, usually lacking in autistic children.


We have now put together video extracts which we have used for Adam on tape. We are hoping that this, together with a list of our “do’s and don’ts” will help other parents or teachers use this technique to help autistic learners develop language skills. A copy of this tape is available for 25 pounds sterling ( or $39 US in American Express Money Order ) from Mr & Mrs F Zihni,PO Box 32, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, SY3 0WB,England, United Kingdom. Concessions are available to parents in hardship.


(a) Use of Video offers an excellent medium for facilitating the learning process to children with autistic tendencies.

(b) It is likely that many autistic children would benefit from the technique.

(c) Video techniques described are simple to administer, although care needs to be taken to ensure that certain ideas are conveyed clearly.

(d) A natural extension to this technique would be the development of similar programmes which make use of Multi-media and possibly virtual reality computers. These learning environments would have the added benefit of enabling the child or an older learner to respond to different scenario driven by the learner’s response. This would enable the learner to exercise procedural choice and control over what is being displayed on the screen. Several areas could be tackled as a result of this “interactivity”. These are helping with deficiencies to form reciprocative conversation, lacking in older children, or social procedures, rules and conventions which autistic people find difficult to grasp. Some applied research would be useful in these areas. We hope that other parents, or education and health professionals can use this method to improve language skills of children similar to Adam. We will be pleased to offer further advice on the subject.

Fahri & Fern Zihni, PO Box 32, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, SY3 0WB, England, United Kingdom. E-mail:

see web site:THE “AZ METHOD

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Measles Jabs & Autism, from Breaking News.

Our son Tim, who is now 21 has been ill since Spring of 1994 with an undiagnosed neurological condition. His symptoms include optic neuritis, dizziness, muscle weakness ( tongue, jaw and eyes ) and fatigue. Most alarming has been the deterioration of his cognitive function. Tim had been diagnosed as autistic when he was two years old and when his cognitive function began deteriorating again in 1994 it was like history repeating itself. When Tim was two he developed encephalitis, perhaps as a result of an immunization. Prior to that time he had been a happy and alert baby. At age two he regressed, lost his expressive and receptive language skills and developed autistic features. With intensive intervention Tim recovered completely and by the time he was eight years old, was functioning very well both academically and socially and was considered completely recovered.

In June of 1992 Tim had a measles booster shot. This may or may not be significant. Two months later, the first of several episodes of severe eye pain and light sensitivity developed, with no diagnosis. There was a pattern of increasing fatigue and sensory overload. In the Spring of 1994 Tim began to complain of increasing difficulty swallowing. At times his speech would sound mushy. During the Fall and Winter Tim’s symptoms became constant. He was loosing weight due to difficulty swallowing and was sleeping most of the time. His eyes were now misaligned, and he was developing tremors in his eyes, eyelids, tongue and jaw. He also suffered from intense itching whenever even slightly overheated. He was worked up extensively for multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis and mastocytosis, and felt not to have any of these conditions. In Jan. 1995 Tim was in such distress his neurologist gave him a five day course of IV solu-medrol. His eye symptoms improved dramatically, as did his cognitive functioning but his response was short- lived and by June Tim was again in terrible distress from his symptoms. Let me add that to even the most casual observer, Tim appeared to be very ill.

It was then I began researching everything I could find on autism, immunization reactions and demyelinating diseases, hoping I might find a common thread. Months later a possible common thread did emerge and that was an autoimmune process. Independently I read of an environmental physician who was treating some cases of early autism with what he called “antigen feeding”. I read incredible stories about immunization reactions, and the belief by some researchers that atypical forms of autism are increasing and that the antibodies to vaccinations are also attacking the myelin. One MD in California reports he is using IVIG to treat selected cases of autism with success.

Because the neuropsychologist who tested Tim believed his test profile was indicative of an early demyelinating disease, I began to read everything I could regarding treatments for MS that were available. That was when I read about Myloral, and antigen desensetization. In August, Tim was doing poorly but his neurologist wanted to wait until Oct. to do another course of Solu-medrol. As it turned out this second course never happened. I told Tim about antigen desensitization and he agreed to take Sphingolin, a food supplement said to contain myelin basic protein. This was all quite casual, with actually little expectation that it would help. Tim began taking eight capsules a day on an empty stomach.

The first person to notice an astounding difference was the optometrist who has been doing vision training with Tim. All objective measures of Tim’s vision had dramatically improved. Tim was sleeping less, and friends were beginning to remark how much better he looked. The improvement continues to this day. The tremors have diminished to a whisper. Tim can now use his eyes to read for the first time in 2 1/2 years. His slowness in thought and difficulty speaking are completely gone.

I am aware that this story regarding Tim proves nothing. We have no diagnosis. The only tests that are positive are the visual evoked potential tests and the BAER. His measles antibody titer is also high. Because no regulated product is yet available, we are giving Tim a “food supplement” that is also poorly defined.

Not as a scientist, but as a mother let me say with the certainty that only a mother can have…Tim’s recent illness is the same illness that he had when he was two. It looks the same, it feels the same. I also know that Tim has been slowly improving since taking Sphingolin.

I have worked very hard to help my son and believe this simple intervention has given Tim back his life. If you could see Tim today and if you could have seen him only two months ago, you would understand why this is potentially such a compelling story.

Yours truly,
Trina Schmits (Tim’s mother)
Dr. Bob Schultz Yale Child Study Center New Haven , CT
National Alliance for Autism Research Margulis London-President Princeton , NJ
Dr. Vijendra K. Singh University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI

Note: Sphingolin is a myelin food supplement made from cow spine. Trina Schmits purchased it through L & H VITAMINS. or at (800) 221-1152. The Web page for stories of people with MS that have used Sphingolin is http://www.2cowherd. net. Besides Sphingolin, Tim Schmits also took pycnogenol, grape seed extract, quercetin, bromelain, cold pressed flax seed oil and Ester C. AutoImmune Inc. is the manufacturer of Myloral ( oral bovine myelin ) that has been used in clinical studies for MS patients and up for FDA approval in 1997.

Excerpts of Articles – Autism and Autoimmunity Vijendra K. Singh, Ph.D.

Singh VK, Warren RP, Odell D. Immune Response to Brain Myelin in Autistic Children. Utah State University (1992).

Screening for myelin basic protein (MBP) antibodies showed that they were found in 19 of 33 (58%) sera from autistic children as compared to only 7 of 50 (14%) sera from the control children.

Immunological testing of autistic children has shown certain features that are also found in patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), thyroid disease (TD), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), insulin – dependent diabetes (IDD), and multiple sclerosis (MS).

Major histocompatibility (MHC) association – Autism displays genetic linkage with immunogenetic factors located on chromosome 6.

Singh VK. Plasma increase of interleukin – 12 and interferon – gamma: Pathological significance in autism. Journal of Neuroimmunology (1996).

The levels of IL-12 and IFN-y were selectively elevated in autism. Because macrophage-derived IL-12 is known to selectively induce IFN-y in T helper type-1 (Th-1) cells, it is suggested that IL-12 and IFN-y increases may indicate antigenic stimulation of Th-1 cells pathogenetically linked to autoimmunity in autism.

Singh VK, Singh EA, Warren RP. Hyperserotoninemia and Serotonin Receptor Antibodies in Children with Autism but Not Mental Retardation. Biol Psychiatry 41: 753-755 (1997).

Autistic children had significantly higher levels of serotonin as compared to normal children or mentally retarded children; however, the mentally retarded children showed significantly lower levels of serotonin when compared to normal children.

Since brain serotinin receptor antibodies were prevalent among hyperserotoninemic autistic children but absent in hyposerotoninemic mentally retarded children, we postulate that hyperserotoninemia in autism may cause autoimmunity (antibodies) to brain serotonin receptor, i.e., serotonin triggers an auto- antibody response (B-cell function) against its own receptor, or it may also be a consequence of autoimmunity. In this respect, serotonin has recently been shown to stimulate mitogen-induced proliferation of B lymphocytes, suggesting its potential for antibody response induction as it occurs during autoimmunity. This possibility, however, remains to be researched. We conclude that the hyperserotoninemia and brain serotonin receptor antibodies may contribute to autoimmune pathogenesis of autism.

Information – Autism and Autoimmunity

Dr. Singh does the MBP and NAFP antibodies testing which he has found in 50 to 60% of autistic patients. He also does a serotonin, serotonin receptor antibody and cytokine profile tests.

Vijendra K. Singh University of Michigan College of Pharmacy

Other autoimmune tests are:
1. antibodies
2. mitogen
3. antigen
4. lymphocyte surface markers
5. MAC and CFS markers

Things to look for: 1. Elevated measles, rubella or DPT titers ( Eric Gallup has a measles titer of 7.74 where the normal range is from 0.00 to 0.79 ).
2. T cell and lymphocyte abnormalities.
3. Abnormal IgG subclasses ( in the case of Eric Gallup they were normal but other children they were abnormal – each child is different ).

A child can be tested after they reach one since before one they have their mother’s antibodies, and not their own.

Bernard Rimland’s DAN protocol book for 1997 is an excellent guide for the various tests at $25.00.
Bernard Rimland, Ph.D. Autism Research Institute 4182 Adams Avenue San Diego, CA 92116

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Possible Treatments for Autoimmunity and Autism. (Measles Jabs etc.)

A) Blood Treatments

– Intravenous Gamma Globulin (IVIG) –

IVIG studies going on in California by Dr. Sudhir Gupta, in Minnesota by Dr. Paul Orchard and in New Jersey by Dr. James Oleske with autistic children. See the Goldenberg Family article.

– Transfer Factor –

Mentioned in Dr. H.H. Fudenberg’s 1996 Biotherapy article concerning his study with autistic children.

– Plasmapheresis –

Used for MS patients. Possible treatment for autism mentioned by Dr. Vijendra K. Singh.

B) Food Supplements

– Sphingolin –

Myelin food supplement made from cow spine. Available from L&H Vitamins at (800) 221-1152. A Sphingolin study is anticipated by Dr. Vijendra K. Singh in 1997. See letter from Trina Schmits.

– Thymic Formula –

Food supplement recommended by Dr. Carson Burgstiner for immune problems. Available at Preventive Therapeutics at (888) 372- 8259.

– NSC-24 ( Beta-glucans ) –

Nutritional product for immunity. Available at Vitamin Express (800) 500-0733.

C) Drugs

– Isoprinosine (ISO) –

Drug by Newport Pharmaceutical. Has helped some autistic children with high measles titers. Available at PWA Health Group Tel# (212) 255-0520, Fax# (212) 255-2080.

– Pentoxifylline –

Studies in Japan showed it helped autistic children. Possible treatment mentioned by Dr. Sudhir Gupta.

– Naltrexone –

Have been studies with autistic children showing success. Also, success reported by parents trying it on their own with their autistic children.

– ACTH –

A steroid used for MS patients. Possible treatment mentioned by Dr. Vijendra K. Singh.

– Piracetam –

Not sold in U.S., used for Down’s syndrome. Intelligence booster and central nervous system (CNS) stimulant.

– Vinpocetine –

Powerful memory enhancer. It facilitates cerebral metabolism by improving cerebral microcirculation ( blood flow ).

Web Pages for Information on Research Concerning Autoimmunity

Cure Autism Now.
The Myelin Project.
MS Crossroads.
Doctors Guide to Medical and Other News.

A thing to keep in mind is what Trina Schmits said to me. “What we need is something that stimulates cell mediated immunity and not antibody mediated immunity. This is quite a challenge because they often work hand in hand. That is why just simply boosting the immune system isn’t always beneficial.”

In a conversation with Dr. Singh, Dr. Fudenberg said he believed there were five causes for autism.

1. immune
2. leaky gut
3. genetic
4. metabolic or biochemical
5. overlapping

I wish to thank the parents with autistic children that are trying some of the various treatments mentioned above that were willing to share information with me. Without there help this wouldn’t have been possible.

Raymond Gallup

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accinations—information from parents required…


Dr. Dr. Singh is interested in getting information from parents about their autistic children in regard to vaccinations. The following is what he is looking for and where you can contact him:

“Families who feel strongly about their child’s autism resulted from vaccination should send information to Dr. Singh. Please include a brief note of child’s medical history, especially with regards to vaccine-related problem and provide a copy of antibody titer if available. ”

Dr. Vijendra K. Singh

University of Michigan

College of Pharmacy

Room 3032

428 Church Street

Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1065

Tel # (313) 763-9772

Fax # (313) 763-2022



Contacts for private doctors who may administer single vaccines (measles, mumps, rubella), on a fee paying basis. credit to Autism in Mind

UK only.

GP-Plus (Edinburgh)


One Wemyss Place, Edinburgh, EH3 6DH

Phone: 0131 225 9949



Cost: £100 measles, £100 mumps, £50 rubella

Time Gap: 6-8 weeks between vaccines

Comments: Growing waiting list. Possible new surgery in Glasgow

Direct Health 2000 (London)

  • Address: 7 Grove Market Place, Courtyard, Eltham, SE9 5PUPhone: 0208 859 1511
  • Email: Web: £40/vaccineTime Gap: 6 weeks between vaccines.Comment: Priority cases will be seen immediately (e.g. those with bowel problems. Click here for full details.

Dr Seyedi (Surrey)

  • Address: Egham, Surrey
  • Phone: 01784 433380
  • Email: N/A
  • Web: N/A
  • Cost: £110 Measles, £90 Mumps, £35 Rubella
  • Time Gap: Minimum 1 month between vaccines but normally 6-8 weeks depending on health of child
  • £110 includes consultation and health check of child.

Dr Halvorsen (London)

  • Address: Inner London
  • Phone: 0207 405 3541
  • Email: N/A
  • Web: N/A
  • Cost: £120 Consultation+Measles; Mumps and Rubella to be discussed
  • Time Gap: To be arranged after consultation but typically 6-12 months between vaccines.
  • Comment: Primarily an NHS GP who will give out NHS based single injections to registered patients. Will carry out some private appointments though.

Dr Richard Primavesi (Inner London)

  • Address: London
  • Phone: 0207 3908355
  • Email: N/A
  • Web: N/A
  • Cost: £145 Consultation+Health Check, £100 follow up consultation. £30-£45 per vaccine.
  • Time Gap: 6-12 months between vaccines. Prefers 12 months.
  • Comment: Private consultant paediatrician.

Dr David Pugh

  • Address: Borehamwood, Herts
  • Phone:020 8953 1881
  • Email: N/A
  • Web: N/A
  • Cost: 60 pounds per vaccine
  • Time Gap: 3-4 months between each vaccine
  • Comment: This GP also runs a monthly outreach clinic in Sheffield. Recommended by JABS

DESUMO (contact Debbie Ryding)

  • Address: Worcester
  • Phone: 01531 631642
  • Email:
  • Web:
  • Cost: Rubella £35, Measles £60, Mumps £58. Also, Registration/Info Pack/After Care £42. Support for low income families available.
  • Time Gap: 6 weeks between Rubella/Measles. 6-12 months between Measles/Mumps.
  • Comment: 20% of monies raised goes to charities such as JABS. Immunity testing also available

Dr J.Oakley M.B., Ch.B, D.C.H., M.R.C.P.

  • Address: 52,Bishops Way, Four Oaks, Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands, B74 4XS.
  • Phone: 0121-308-8876
  • Email: N/A
  • Web: N/A
  • Cost: £95 per vaccine
  • Time Gap: N/A
  • Comment:

Autism In Mind, in no way recommend single vaccines over the MMR and vice versa. Parents should find as much information and consider all aspects before deciding which immunisation is best for their child.